環保風暴下這種養蝦模式能否替代如東小棚模式?

             

在南美白對蝦養殖行業中,江蘇如東的小棚養殖由于具有產量高、效益好、養殖周期短的優點,周邊地區紛紛仿效,形成了“如東小棚”模式。這種養殖缺點也很明顯:一是非法開采地下水,小棚養殖部分采用地下水,連片養殖區域每年消耗的地下水量較多,這種掠奪式的開采對有限的地下水資源造成了嚴重的破壞;二是小棚養殖缺少排污系統,小棚模式的池塘沒有專門的排污設施,整個養殖過程中產生的殘餌和糞便全部積累于池塘底部,有機物含量高,使得養殖過程中水質處于較差狀態,特別是在投苗 60 天以后,池塘中的化學耗氧量(COD)平均高于 100 毫克/千克,氨氮和亞硝態氮都呈現上升趨勢,對蝦處于一種高應激狀態,極易感染各種疾病而發生死亡。三是尾水未經處理直排對環境造成威脅,小棚養蝦模式全程沒有排污,養殖結束時尾水中的COD高達200毫克/千克,排放后對外界水環境的影響比較嚴重。特別是由于采用地下水的緣故,尾水含有一定量的鹽分,影響了內地農業灌溉并造成當地耕地鹽堿化。

ZHENDUIZHEZHONGYISHANGQINGKUANG,NANTONGSHIZHENGFUANZHAOJIANGSUSHENGHUANBAODUCHA、CHANGJIANGJINGJIDAISHENGTAIHUANJINGBAOHUSHENJIYIJI《NANTONGSHIWURANFANGZHIGONGJIANZHANXINGDONGFANGAN》GONGZUOYAOQIU,YILVSEFAZHANWEIMUBIAO,ANZHAO“SHENGTAIYOUXIAN、YIFAYIGUI、FENLEISHICE、SHUIWURANSHUIZHILI、SHUDIFUZE”DEYUANZE,DUIWEIFANYOUGUANFALVGUIDINGQIEYANZHONGPOHUAISHENGTAIHUANJINGDENANMEIBAIDUIXIAYANGZHICHANG(HU),YIFAYOUXUSHISHIWURANZHENGZHI,TUIJINSHENGCHANSHENGTAIXIEDIAOFAZHAN,SHIXIANNANMEIBAIDUIXIAYANGZHICHANYELVSEFAZHANYUSHENGTAIHUANJINGBAOHU“SHUANGYING”MUBIAO。

以下結合南美白對蝦養殖難點、當前環保政策以及整個養殖大環境對南美白對蝦養殖模式進行思考。

YI、 JIANLIXINDEYANGZHIMOSHI

GONGCHANGHUAXIAOPENGYANGZHIMOSHISHIGONGCHANGHUAGAOMIDUJIYUEHUAYANGZHIHECHUANTONGXIAOPENGYANGZHIXIANGJIEHEDEYIZHONGYANGZHIMOSHI,MUQIANZHEZHONGMOSHISHANGCHUYUTANSUOJIEDUAN。GONGCHANGHUAXIAOPENGDECHITANGHECHUANTONGDEXIAOPENGCHITANGJIBENJIEGOUYIYANG,CHANG45~50MI、KUAN10MI、SHEN60~80LIMI,TONGYICAIYONGGANGCAIZHICHENGJIAGUJIEGOU,CHIDIBUYONGSHUINIPUSHECHENGZHUIXING,DIBUSHEYOUPAISHUIKOU,YUCHENDIANCHITONGGUOGUANDAOXIANGLIAN,CHENDIANHOUDESHUIYONGQIANSHUIBENGCHOUJINYANYANGCHICHULIHOUZHONGXINPAIHUIYANGCHENGCHI。CHITANGZHONGJIANZAIGUODAOJIASHENAMIZENGYANGGUAN,YONGRUANGUANLIANJIEPUQITOUHUOCAIYONGDAZHIJINGPUQIQIPAN,PEIBEIDAGONGLVLUOCIGUFENGJIQUANCHENGZENGYANG。TONGSHIPUSHEYOUJIAWENGUANDAO,NENGGOUWEICHISHUIWENZAIJIAOGAOSHUIPING。XIAOPENGLIMIANPEIYOUWUSHUICHULIXITONG,YIBANCAIQULIANGTOUWEIYANGCHENGCHI,ZHONGJIANWEIWUSHUICHULIXITONG,BAOKUOCHENDIANCHIHEYANYANGCHIDEBUJU。GONGCHANGHUAXIAOPENGWAIBIANJIANLISHENGTAIGOUQU,YONGYUWEISHUICHULI。QUANCHENGSHIYONGDIBIAOSHUI,JIANGDIBIAOSHUIYINJINXIAOPENGWAIDEXUSHUICHIJIAPIAOBAIFENJINXINGXIAODUCHULI,KAIZENGYANGJIJINXINGPUQI,YULVXIAOCHUHOU4-5TIANZUOYOUYINJINYANGCHENGCHIZUOWEIYANGZHIYONGSHUI。YANDUKONGZHIZAI2‰YIXIA(JIANGSUYANHAIDIBIAOSHUIDEYANDU)。QUANNIANBUJIANDUANYANGZHI,YIBANWEI3CHA,BAOKUOCHUNJIJIAWENMIAO、CHUNJIZHIFANGMIAOHEQIUJIXIAYANGZHI。YOUYUPEIYOUJIAWENSHESHI,JIAOGAODESHUIWENJIANGJIANGSUDIQUDEYANGZHIGUOCHENGTIQIANHEYANQI,GAIBIANLECHUANTONGDEYANGZHIJIJIE,YANCHANGLEKEYANGZHISHIJIAN,CUOKAILECHENGXIASHANGSHIGAOFENG,TIGAOLESHANGPINDUIXIADEJIAGE,ZENGJIALEYANGZHIXIAOYI。ZHEZHONGXINDEYANGZHIMOSHIJUYOUYIXIAYOUDIAN:YISHIPEIYOUWUSHUICHULIXITONG,SHIXIANXUNHUANSHUIYANGZHI,NENGGOUYOUXIAOJIANGDIYAXIAOSUANYANHEANDANDENGYOUDUYOUHAIWUZHIDEHANLIANG,TIGAOYANGZHIDECHENGGONGLV,SHUIZAIZHENGGEYANGZHIGUOCHENGZHONGNENGGOUSHIXIANXUNHUANLIYONG,LVSEHUANBAOJIEYUESHUIZIYUAN。ERSHISHIYONGWEISHENGTAIZHIJI,JUJUESHIYONGKANGSHENGSUDENGHUAXUEWUZHI,FUHELVSEJIANKANGSHENGTAIYANGZHIDELINIAN,ZAIZHENGGEYANGZHIGUOCHENGZHONG,SILIAOZHONGBANYOURUSUANJUN,JIAOMUJUNDENGCHANGDAOYOUYIJUN,DIAOSHUISHISHIYONGHANYOUKUCAOYABAOGANJUN,FENCHANGQIUJUNDENGWEISHENGTAIZHIJI,YANYANGCHILIDINGQIPOFANXIAOHUAJUNHEHONGTANGDEHUNHEYE,TONGSHIYANGCHENGCHILISHIYONGFAJIAOMIKANGHEMAIFUJINXINGDIAODAI,MEITIANDINGSHIPOSALUOHANGUOFAJIAOYE,BUCHONGTANYUAN,WEICHIWENDINGDETANDANBI,SHIXIANJUNXIANGPINGHENG。SANSHIFENGBIXIAOSHUITI,XITONGYIKONGZHI。CAIYONGSHUANGCENGSULIAOBOMOFUGAI,XIAOPENGNEIBUHUANJINGYUWAIJIEXIANGDUIDULI,TIANQITUBIANSHIDUIXITONGDEYINGXIANGXIANGDUIJIAOXIAO,YIDINGCHENGDUSHANGKEYIDIYUJIANGYU、TAIFENG、JIANGWENDENGELIETIANQIDUINANMEIBAIDUIXIACHANSHENGDEYINGJIXING,SHIDEZHENGGEYANGZHISHENGTAIXITONGRUSHUIWEN、SHUIZHIYIKONGZHI。SISHIBINGYUANYINGXIANGXIAO,YANGZHIFABINGSHAO。WUSHIYANGZHIDUOCHAHUA,CHITANGLIYONGLVGAO CAIYONGSULIAOWENPENGJINXINGDUIXIAYANGZHI,KEYITIQIANFANGMIAOHEYANCHANGQIBUSHIJIAN,JIBENKEYIYANGZHI3CHA,TIGAOLECHITANGLIYONGLV。LIUSHIYANGZHIZHOUQIDUAN,TOUMIAOSHIJIANLINGHUO。GONGCHANGHUAXIAOPENGMOSHICAIYONGFENGBIDESULIAOWENPENG,YANGZHIZHOUQISUODUAN,GAIBIANJIJIEYINGXIANG,TOUMIAOSHIJIANKEYIANZHAOSHICHANGXUYAOERSHEDING,ZENGQIANGYANGZHISHIJIANDELINGHUOXING。CAIYONGHUANBAOTIWENFANGSHI,ZAOMIAOTOUFANGSHIJIANKEYITIQIANDAOCHUNJIEQIJIAN。YANGZHIQUANGUOCHENGZUODAOSHUICHANPINZHILIANGANQUANKEZHUISU。

ER、 KEXUEHELIYANGZHI

YISHIBAHAOSHUICHANMIAOZHONGCHANDIJIANYIGUAN,YANGZHIGUOCHENGZHONGMIAOZHONGDAIJUNSHISHIBAIDEZHONGYAOYUANYINZHIYI。MUQIANKEYIJIANCEDEXIALEIBINGYUANZHONGLEIBAOKUOGANCHANGBAOCHONG(EHP)、BAIBANZONGHEZHENGBINGDU(WSSV)、CHUANRANXINGPIXIAJIZAOXUEZUZHIHUAISIBINGDU(IHHNV)、TAOLABINGDU(TSV)、JIXINGGANYIXIANHUAISIZONGHEZHENGHUJUNDENG。JIANGSUSHENGHAIYANGSHUICHANYANJIUSUOZHONGXINSHIYANSHIZAI2017NIANWEIDANGDIYANGZHIHUZUOLEDALIANGDEXIAMIAOXIEDAIBINGYUANDEJIANCEGONGZUO,YIDINGCHENGDUSHANGDAOBINANFANGYUMIAOCHANGJIAQIANGLEZISHENDEXIAMIAOCHUCHANGQIANDEJIANYI。ERSHIGAISHANGONGYANGNENGLI,GONGCHANGHUAXIAOPENGYANGZHIMOSHIDUIRONGYANGXUQIUJIAOGAO,YOUTIAOJIANDECHANGJIAJIANYIMEIPINGFANGMIDEZENGYANGNENGLIWEI15WA,HOUQIDADAO25WA。SANSHIHELIANPAISHENGCHANZHOUQI,GENJUJISHUSHUIPING、SHESHITIAOJIAN,MEICHAMIAODEYANGZHISHIJIANWEI70TIANZHI120TIAN。SISHIHELIFANGYANGMIDU,GENJUWAIJIESHUIZHITIAOJIAN、GUANLISHUIPING,ZAICHITANG1MISHUISHENDEQINGKUANGXIA,MEIPINGFANGMITOUMIAOWEI400WEIZHI600WEI。WUSHIHELIXUANYONGSHUICHANYANGZHIYONGWEISHENGTAIZHIJI,GENJUSHUIYUAN、DIQUHELIXUANZESHIYIDEWEISHENGTAIZHIJI,YIKEXUEDESHUJUZUOWEIWEISHENGTAIZHIJISHIYONGPINZHONG、SHULIANG、PINLVDEYIJU,QUEBAOHUOJUNSHIYONGHOUDECHENGHUOLV,DUJUEMANGMUSHIYONG。LIUSHIBAHAOSHUIYUANGUAN。SHUIZIYUANDELIYONGYAOHUANBAO、HEFA。NANMEIBAIDUIXIASHUSHIJIEXINGGUANGYANXINGPINZHONGCHENGXIAYANGZHIWANQUANKEYIZAIQIANFENZHI2YIXIADEDIYANDUHUODANSHUIZHONGJINXING。YANJINYANGZHIGUOCHENGZHONGJIARUYANZHIPINHUOFEIFAKAICAISHIYONGDIXIAXIANSHUIDUIHUANJINGZAOCHENGPOHUAI。QISHIHELIXUANYONGBAOWENTIWENSHESHI,FEIQIPAIFANGBIXUDADAO《GUOLUDAQIWURANWUPAIFANGBIAOZHUN》(GB13271-2014)DEGUIDING。BASHIYANGZHIWEISHUIYINGYUXIANCHULI,PAIFANGYINGFUHE《DANSHUICHITANGYANGZHISHUIPAIFANGYAOQIU》(SC/T9101-2007)、《NONGTIANGUANGAISHUIZHIBIAOZHUN》(GB5084-2005)、《HAISHUIYANGZHISHUIPAIFANGYAOQIU》(SC/T9103-2007)DENGXIANGYINGYAOQIU。

CHUANTONGXIAOPENGJINGLILEYOUZUICHUCHUANTONGCUFANGSHIYANGZHIMOSHIZHUBUGUODUDAOBANJINGXIYANGZHI、GONGCHANGHUAYANGZHIHECHITANGJINGXIHUNHEYANGZHIMOSHI,ZHEXIEBUTONGYANGZHIMOSHIYANBIANBEIHOUDELUOJISHI:YANGZHIQIYE(HU)ZAIZHUIQIUJINGJILIYIDETONGSHI,XUYAOGENGJIAZHUZHONGZIRANHEHUANJINGDEXIEDIAONENGLIYUCHENGZAINENGLI。SUIZHUKEXUEDEFAZHANHEJINBU,NANMEIBAIDUIXIADEYANGZHIMOSHIYEZAIBUDUANSHENGJIHUANDAI。LVEDUODIXIASHUIZIYUANJINXINGYANGZHIDEYANGZHIMOSHIZAIYIZAIQIANGDIAOHUANBAO,LVSEKEXUNHUANFAZHANDEZHANLVEFANGXIANGSHANGZHUJIANZOUYUAN。

CHUANTONGXIAOPENGJUYOUDECHANLIANGGAO,XIAOYIHAO,DUOCHAYANGZHI,SHUITIHUANJINGYIKONGZHIDENGDENGYOUDIAN,GONGCHANGHUAXIAOPENGBUJINDOUJUYOUHUANNENGBICHUANTONGXIAOPENGXIAOYIGENGGAO,DUIHUANJINGDEYAOQIUGENGDI,GENGFUHELVSEHUANBAOFAZHANDEYAOQIU。CONGZHENGGEYANGZHIDEDAHUANJINGHENANTONGSHIZHENGFUCHUTAIDEYIXILIECUOSHILAIKAN,CHUANTONGXIAOPENGYIJINGHENNANZAISHIYINGDANGXIADEHUANJINGBAOHUYUGUOJIAZHENGCEYAOQIU,SUOYIMUQIANYANGZHIYEZHUXUYAOZAIJINGJIXIAOYIHESHENGTAIXIAOYIZHIJIANXUNZHAOPINGHENGDIAN,ERZHEJIANGU。GONGCHANGHUAXIAOPENGXUNHUANSHUIYANGZHISHICHAOZHUZHEGEPINGHENGDIANKAOJINDEYIZHONGYANGZHIMOSHI,MUQIANZHEZHONGHUANBAOXUNHUANSHUIYANGZHIMOSHISHANGCHUCHUBUJIEDUAN,JISHUHEYINGJIANSHESHIDOUHUANYOUYIDINGQIANQUE,RUMUQIANRENGZUOBUDAOLINGPAIFANGDEYAOQIU,YANGZHIWEISHUICHULICHENGBENGAO,QIANQIQIDONGZIJINGAODENGWENTI,YANGZHIQIYE(HU)JIXUZIJINJISHUZHICHI。JIASUNANMEIBAIDUIXIAYANGZHIMOSHISHENGJIZHUANXING,SHICHUANTONGDEDEXIAOPENGYANGZHICHAOZHUYIXUNHUANSHUI、LINGPAIFANG、DANSHUIYANGZHIDEGONGCHANGHUAXIAOPENGMOSHIWEIDAIBIAODELVSEHUANBAOYANGZHIMOSHIFAZHAN,JIUNENGSHIGAICHANYEZHONGXINHUANFAHUOLI。